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我国磅秤的发展历史及三大类磅秤介绍

作者:admin 发布日期:2019-06-05 关注次数:715

对磅秤产品的分类,我国历史上的磅秤产品分类是依据秤的结构和运用方法而定类和称号,计分为三大类,即杆秤、机械式秤和电子秤。

(一)杆秤在我国有着长远的历史和巨大的商场。

秤杆(gan)有骨杆(gan)、木杆(gan)、金(jin)属(shu)杆(gan)(铜杆(gan)、铝杆(gan));秤砣(tuo)有石砣(tuo)、金(jin)属(shu)砣(tuo);提绳(sheng)有二提绳(sheng)、三提绳(sheng)。

杆秤


计量单位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)演变由夏商(shang)时期(qi)运用(yong)(yong)(yong)铢(zhu)和(he)两(liang)(liang),开展(zhan)到周朝(chao)时期(qi)铢(zhu)、两(liang)(liang)、金、均(jun)、石(shi)(二(er)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)四(si)铢(zhu)为(wei)(wei)(wei)一(yi)(yi)两(liang)(liang),十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)六(liu)两(liang)(liang)为(wei)(wei)(wei)一(yi)(yi)斤,三(san)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)斤为(wei)(wei)(wei)一(yi)(yi)均(jun),四(si)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)均(jun)为(wei)(wei)(wei)一(yi)(yi)石(shi))。据古(gu)籍记载(zai)(zai),古(gu)代(dai)以北(bei)斗七星(xing)(xing),南斗六(liu)星(xing)(xing)和(he)福禄寿三(san)星(xing)(xing)共(gong)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)六(liu)颗星(xing)(xing)为(wei)(wei)(wei)记,在(zai)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)杆(gan)(gan)上刻(ke)制十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)六(liu)颗星(xing)(xing)花,故(gu)成(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)六(liu)两(liang)(liang)制秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),一(yi)(yi)直沿用(yong)(yong)(yong)到解放初(chu)期(qi);五十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)年(nian)(nian)代(dai)改为(wei)(wei)(wei)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)两(liang)(liang)制,即(ji)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)两(liang)(liang)为(wei)(wei)(wei)一(yi)(yi)市(shi)斤,二(er)市(shi)斤为(wei)(wei)(wei)一(yi)(yi)公(gong)斤。因为(wei)(wei)(wei)杆(gan)(gan)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)制作简易,携带方(fang)便,所(suo)以运用(yong)(yong)(yong)极(ji)广,八(ba)十(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)年(nian)(nian)代(dai)我国杆(gan)(gan)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)产量曾达到上千万支;可是(shi)(shi),杆(gan)(gan)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)操作不方(fang)便、计量速度慢、准确度差(cha)又是(shi)(shi)它丧命的(de)(de)(de)(de)缺点,跟着商(shang)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)日益(yi)昌盛(sheng),这一(yi)(yi)缺点对(dui)商(shang)场开展(zhan)和(he)百姓生活(huo)造成(cheng)了越(yue)来越(yue)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)伤(shang)害,它的(de)(de)(de)(de)负面影响已远远超(chao)出了缺斤少两(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)规模。依据社会各界强烈反(fan)映(ying),国家技能(neng)监督局(ju)和(he)国家工(gong)商(shang)行政(zheng)管理局(ju)于(yu)1994年(nian)(nian)9月23日联合发出《关于(yu)公(gong)众(zhong)贸(mao)易傍(bang)边约(yue)束运用(yong)(yong)(yong)杆(gan)(gan)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)通知》,杆(gan)(gan)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置逐渐为(wei)(wei)(wei)自行显现磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(电子式秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、弹簧度盘秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)等(deng))所(suo)取代(dai),这预示沿用(yong)(yong)(yong)千载(zai)(zai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)杆(gan)(gan)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)将从人们(men)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生活(huo)舞台(tai)上消失;可是(shi)(shi),作为(wei)(wei)(wei)我国文明(ming)历史中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)个重要标志,它的(de)(de)(de)(de)光辉印迹将永载(zai)(zai)史册。


(二)机械式秤

机械(xie)式秤是指以机械(xie)结构为(wei)支点的称重用具(ju)的总称,包含(han)天平、案秤、台秤、弹簧秤,以及工业用大(da)型和(he)专用磅秤。


机械式秤


(1)天平(ping):称重支点在中(zhong)心的各种等(deng)臂(bei)杠杆(gan),有天平(ping)和(he)架盘天平(ping)(亦有不等(deng)臂(bei)架盘天平(ping))等(deng)。

(2)案秤(cheng):称(cheng)量在50公斤(jin)(不含(han)50公斤(jin))以(yi)下的杠杆式(shi)机械秤(cheng)。

(3)台秤(cheng):称量在50公斤至1000公斤的杠杆式(shi)机械秤(cheng)。

(4)弹簧秤:利用(yong)弹簧蔓延求荷重的秤,有单(dan)面(mian)显现和双面(mian)显现之(zhi)分。

(5)大型机械式磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)和各种专(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),包含地(di)上衡(heng)、地(di)中衡(heng)、轨(gui)道衡(heng)(分轻轨(gui)和重(zhong)轨(gui))、料斗秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、皮带秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、包装(zhuang)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、吊秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)以及钢(gang)材秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、牲畜秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、甘蔗秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、售粮秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、液体定量(liang)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、称(cheng)量(liang)车(che)等;仅用(yong)(yong)于(yu)单一(yi)职(zhi)业或单一(yi)工艺线上的测重(zhong)计量(liang)用(yong)(yong)具称(cheng)为(wei)专(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),如(ru)邮政(zheng)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、卷烟秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)等。

机械(xie)式(shi)磅(bang)(bang)秤(cheng)的(de)(de)加工(gong)手(shou)法(fa)(fa)易于把握,制造成本和(he)(he)销(xiao)售价格较(jiao)低,运用(yong)规模很广,因此目前在(zai)(zai)我国(guo)商(shang)(shang)用(yong)磅(bang)(bang)秤(cheng)产品商(shang)(shang)场仍占主(zhu)导地位(按产量计占90%以上),在(zai)(zai)工(gong)业用(yong)磅(bang)(bang)秤(cheng)中(zhong)也占有适当的(de)(de)比重。可(ke)是(shi),因为(wei)设计和(he)(he)加工(gong)、调试(shi)手(shou)法(fa)(fa)等条件(jian)的(de)(de)约束,机械(xie)式(shi)磅(bang)(bang)秤(cheng)体积粗笨,精度(du)和(he)(he)称重准确性及计量速(su)度(du)都(dou)受到一定(ding)程度(du)的(de)(de)制约,因此已为(wei)性能优越的(de)(de)电子式(shi)产品逐渐(jian)代替(ti),它的(de)(de)商(shang)(shang)场在(zai)(zai)逐渐(jian)萎(wei)缩,加工(gong)能力显着过剩。

(三)电子秤


载于秤(cheng)的台(tai)座、盘、钩上的物(wu)品的分(fen)量由(you)传(chuan)感(gan)器(qi)蠕变反响平衡,由(you)仪器(qi)数字(zi)显(xian)现的秤(cheng)为电子秤(cheng)。


电子秤


电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)集机、电(dian)、仪于一(yi)体,具(ju)有多功能(neng)(neng)(neng)、高精度(du)、快速(su)和动(dong)(dong)态(tai)计(ji)(ji)量(liang)、安稳(wen)牢靠等特(te)(te)征,代表了(le)磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)产品开(kai)展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)方向(xiang)。目(mu)前我国产品规范中(zhong)(zhong)列入的(de)(de)(de)(de)十大(da)(da)类磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(案秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、台秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、地上衡(heng)(heng)(heng)、地中(zhong)(zhong)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)、吊秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、皮(pi)带秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、料(liao)斗(dou)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、查验秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、轨(gui)道(dao)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)和特(te)(te)种秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng))均已(yi)完(wan)成(cheng)了(le)电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)化。据近期统(tong)计(ji)(ji),工(gong)业用(yong)磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(按销(xiao)售(shou)量(liang)统(tong)计(ji)(ji))中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)产品已(yi)占三分之二左(zuo)右,技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)水平比较老练的(de)(de)(de)(de)静(jing)态(tai)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)计(ji)(ji)量(liang)规模可以(yi)从(cong)1μg到(dao)800t,部分非主动(dong)(dong)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)器(qi)(如电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)计(ji)(ji)价(jia)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)台秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)地上衡(heng)(heng)(heng)、电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)皮(pi)带秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)吊秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)和电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)轨(gui)道(dao)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)等)已(yi)达(da)到(dao)国际九十年(nian)代初期水平,有的(de)(de)(de)(de)产品达(da)到(dao)了(le)九十年(nian)代中(zhong)(zhong)期水平;因(yin)为近十年(nian)来电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)迅速(su)开(kai)展(zhan)(zhan),商(shang)用(yong)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加工(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)力迅速(su)增长,产品成(cheng)本(ben)大(da)(da)幅度(du)下降,商(shang)场稳(wen)步开(kai)展(zhan)(zhan)。现(xian)在,电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)计(ji)(ji)量(liang)称重技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)已(yi)越来越多地使(shi)用(yong)于工(gong)业生产过程控制中(zhong)(zhong),电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)及(ji)使(shi)用(yong)拓展(zhan)(zhan)到(dao)更(geng)广泛领域。跟(gen)着我国加入WTO安排,经济商(shang)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)敞开(kai)度(du)加大(da)(da), 一(yi)批具(ju)有国际先(xian)进(jin)水平的(de)(de)(de)(de)磅秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)产品和技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(如定量(liang)包装秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、主动(dong)(dong)分量(liang)查验秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、标(biao)签(qian)计(ji)(ji)价(jia)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、电(dian)脑组合秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、耐压式计(ji)(ji)量(liang)给煤机等,以(yi)及(ji)应变(bian)计(ji)(ji)、称重传感器(qi)、称重显现(xian)器(qi)生产技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng))进(jin)入我国,这对(dui)电(dian)子(zi)(zi)(zi)秤(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)一(yi)步普及(ji)和提高必(bi)将发生活跃(yue)的(de)(de)(de)(de)、巨大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang)。

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